The use of Liquid Air Intercooler is most common where the space is limited or access to cooling airflow is considered difficult. Also, in vehicles where plumbing (charge air pipes) will be excessive in their length. An application such as rear engine car is a good example.
‘Liquid to Air’ Intercoolers (such as a PWR Barrel) will see more rapid cooling relative to its size compared to Air to Air. The barrel can be mounted inside an engine bay and does not require direct cooling airflow. This often results in a near zero increase in lag time compared to a vehicle without an intercooler at all.
Liquid to Air generally offers a more stable water temperature in stop-start applications though a Liquid to Air system requires the use of a separate cooling radiator (normally) via pump and in-line fill point and 19mm hoses.
Liquid to Air also has the option of chilling the cooling liquid via means of ice resulting in sub ambient temperatures. This normally used in competition applications.